Brewers at The Boston Beer Company ran trials to determine how common spices changed perceived bitterness in various beers. They found that there’s more to bitterness than isomerized alpha acids and more to measuring IBU than those isomerized compounds.
Understanding pH and Titratable Acidity in Sour Beer: Tools for Brewers and Enthusiasts Alike
Brewers have often used pH to describe the sourness of their beer, but recent research has shown not only that titratable acidity correlates more closely to perceived sourness, but that additional factors are also important. Stan Hieronymus elaborates.
Forward Contracting Hops
When breweries contract their hops usage at least three years in advance, it lets hops growers better project the varieties to grow and whether to expand the farms, helps prevent shortages or overages, and creates more stability in the hops market.